Firstly there are no registered chemicals in use on golf courses for the control of insects and earthworms. There hasn’t been for 5 years now and in my experience that has led to a huge amount of food for badgers and hedgehogs alike. Agriculture has lost most of its insecticides as well so probably food isn’t an issue. Greenkeepers are into work typically from 5am so tend to be around in the hours of darkness or dawn when I’ve seen hedgehogs around here so maybe it’s just the type of habitat that doesn’t suit. Totally agree with loss of hedgerows.
I’d say the nearest badger set to my garden is about 1 1/2 miles from here. I know the countryside here well and have been a resident from 1969. It is like you say, if we create a habit and supply food for a species then we provide an opportunity for that species predator. Since hedgehogs are in decline I’d rather encourage them and take the consequences rather than not.